Day: October 17, 2023

Data SGP

Data sgp is an important part of the software package for SGP analyses. It contains the classes, functions and data that are used to calculate student growth percentiles and percentile growth projections/trajectories using large scale, longitudinal education assessment data. Data sgp also provides information on the distributional properties of these statistics.

The vignettes contained in this section describe the use of WIDE and LONG data formats for SGP analyses. For most analyses, it is recommended that you format the data in the LONG format since it offers numerous preparation and storage benefits over the WIDE format. This is particularly true if you plan to run your SGP analyses operationally year after year.

This vignette illustrates how to construct a student growth percentile (SGP) from a single prior test score for students in grades 4 through 8 and in grade 10. The SGPs calculated by DESE compare students’ current tests scores with their prior tests scores. For example, the SGP for a grade 10 student compares the student’s current English language arts (ELA) and math tests scores with their prior tests scores in those two subjects.

In general, SGPs estimated from standardized test scores are error-prone measures of their corresponding latent achievement attributes. These errors are due to finite sample sizes, biases in item selection and construction, as well as other model and methodological issues (Akram, Erickson & Meyer, 2013; Lockwood & Castellano, 2015; McCaffrey, Castellano, & Lockwood, 2015).

To estimate the accuracy of SGPs estimated from standardized test scores, it is necessary to understand their distributional properties. For this purpose, this vignette describes the distribution of true SGPs for individual students, their correlations with each other, and their relationship to student background characteristics.

The vignette also demonstrates how to improve the quality of SGPs by conditioning on additional information about the student. The plot shows RMSEs of SGPs conditional on only the prior ELA test scores (curve with triangles), on only the prior math tests scores (curve with X) and on both the math scores and the covariates (curve with +).

In addition to the vignettes, this documentation contains several examples of SGP analyses that you can use to practice your skills and gain proficiency in the SGP software package. If you have a specific SGP question that is not answered in this documentation, feel free to ask it in the SGP discussion forum. We will be happy to help you! SGP is an open source project. You can contribute your code, bug fixes and suggestions by submitting an issue on the GitHub repository. Alternatively, you can contact the SGP developers directly through email at [email protected]. You can download and use the SGP software for free, but be sure to cite the authors when you distribute your work. This software is released under the BSD License. For a complete explanation of the license and other terms and conditions, see the license document.

The Exciting Game of Domino

Domino has a long history of use and many varieties. People of all ages enjoy stacking the flat, thumb-sized pieces in long lines and then knocking them down. The stacked dominoes are also sometimes used to create intricate designs and structures.

The name comes from the fact that, when tipped over, each piece causes the next one to tip, and so on, until the whole chain collapses in a cascade of events that can be quite dramatic. This idea of a simple action having much greater consequences is the origin of the popular phrase “domino effect.”

As with playing cards, of which they are a variant, each domino has a set of identifying marks on either side. These are called pips or dots; they can be either white or black, and they may be arranged in various combinations, depending on the type of domino. Most commonly, a domino has an arrangement of six pips. The value of each domino is indicated by its position in a set and by the number of the pips on its adjacent pieces.

Most of us have played with dominoes, or at least watched others play them. Kids love the simple excitement of starting a line with just one domino and then watching it fall, one tile at a time. Adults may even play dominoes for competition, where points are scored for certain sequences of events.

Some of the more elaborate domino setups are created by professional artists, such as Hevesh, whose YouTube channel has more than 2 million subscribers. She has built domino chains in stadiums and for movie and TV premieres, and her work has even been featured on a album launch by pop star Katy Perry.

While a set of dominoes can be constructed from polymer or other inexpensive materials, more expensive sets are often made of natural, more durable, and/or attractive materials. For example, some sets are constructed of bone or silver lip ocean pearl oyster shell (mother of pearl), ivory, or a dark hardwood such as ebony, with contrasting black or white pips. These sets are usually crafted by hand, and are therefore more costly than those made of polymer.

More recently, domino sets have been produced in high-quality materials such as marble and granite; soapstone; woods including walnut, sycamore, and mahogany; metals including brass and pewter; and ceramic clay or glass. These sets tend to be heavier than those of polymer or other non-durable materials, and their construction costs are generally higher, but they offer a more attractive look and a more substantial feel to the touch. Many people find that the novelty and beauty of these more-expensive dominoes make them well worth the extra cost.