Day: January 19, 2024

What is Data SGP?

Data sgp is a database of longitudinal student assessment data that allows teachers and administrators to see how their students are progressing academically and identify areas where additional support may be necessary. This data is generated by comparing students’ current test scores with those of their academic peers nationwide who have similar prior achievement levels using a model that considers student demographics and prior performance. SGP also provides growth projections that show what students’ trajectories are likely to lead to, including the estimated amount of growth needed for them to reach/keep-up with their academic peers in order to maintain proficiency.

Developed by Damian Betebenner, SGP estimates a student’s growth relative to the average of their academic peers based on historical data from their standardized test scores. The sgpData package, which is installed with the SGP software, includes an exemplar WIDE format data set (sgpData) and a LONG format sgpData_LONG dataset that models the format of the time dependent variables used by the lower level studentGrowthPercentiles and studentGrowthProjections functions. The sgpData vignette describes how to work with these data sets to create SGP analyses.

Standardized test score measures are imperfect measures of latent achievement traits, and the estimation process for creating these estimates can introduce large estimation errors into the final estimate (Akram, Erickson & Meyer 2013; Lockwood & Castellano 2015). SGP is a system that uses longitudinal student assessment data to produce statistical growth plots that account for the estimated error in students’ prior and current test scores and provide more accurate measures of a student’s actual academic progress than unadjusted test score measures.

SGP scores are calculated by comparing a students’ current test score against the average of the highest and lowest performing academic peers. SGPs are available in two formats: Window Specific SGP, which can be compared or reported between different windows of time and Current SGP, which is intended to serve as a quick check-in for a student’s progression over time.

The SGP analysis results are saved in a spreadsheet document containing all of the students’ sgpData output for a given period of time. These spreadsheets can then be reviewed and analyzed by teachers and administrators to help them understand the meaning of each individual sgpData output.

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The Domino Effect in Writing

Domino is a game played by two or more people using a set of small rectangular blocks, each marked with spots resembling those on dice. The dominos are placed on a flat surface, and each player takes a turn playing one onto the table. The first person to play a domino that touches both ends of the existing chain (normally an end with a number showing on one side or blank) then claims all the remaining tiles and declares victory. A player may not touch his or her own dominoes during play.

The most common domino sets contain 28 double six tiles, though larger and smaller sets are available for more complex games. The tiles are numbered along their edges, and each domino has a value indicated by the numbers in its corners, which are usually called pips or spots. A domino also has a line in its middle, which divides it visually into two equal squares. Each square has a value from zero to six, with the higher values having more pips than the lower. Each pips represents one unit of force, so a domino with more pips is “heavier” than a domino with fewer pips.

In order for a domino to fall, the forces that hold it in place must overcome its inertia, or its tendency to resist motion. A domino has potential energy, which is its stored energy compared to its resting state. When a domino is pushed, its potential energy turns to kinetic energy, or the energy of motion, which is transferred to the next domino in the chain, causing it to move and potentially knock over other dominoes. The process continues until all the dominoes have fallen.

Often, Hevesh’s mind-blowing domino creations require several nail-biting minutes to complete, and they are only made possible because of an essential physical phenomenon: gravity. When a domino is kicked, it is pulled toward Earth by the pull of gravity, which then sends it crashing into the next domino and setting off a chain reaction.

As a writer, you can use the domino effect in your story to create dramatic tension and build toward your resolution. Consider each scene in your story as a domino that must be impacted by the scenes before it to ensure that they are working together. If your scenes aren’t building tension or impacting the next scene, they need to be reworked.

If you are a pantser, meaning that you don’t make detailed outlines of your plot ahead of time, then you can apply the domino effect to your writing. Rather than using outlines or Scrivener, you can use scene cards to weed out scenes that aren’t doing their job and stifle momentum. This method will help you develop a better story structure and a more interesting and exciting plot.